There are quite a few resonable reasons why you would want to migrate your cronjobs to systemd timers. While cron used to be present in any Unix-like systems, that is not longer the case. You can of course still install it, but most of my systems are using systemd nowadays anyway.
Apart from that, here are a few reasons to further embrace your love-hate-relationship with systemd:
- Logging: Cron jobs may or may not write to a log file somewhere. This can become a mess, especially on multi-user systems where every crontab follows it’s own “standard”. Systemd timers will log to the systemd journal in a clean fashion making debugging a lot easier.
- Dependencies: Units can list reaquired dependencies to other units, ensuring that all necesarry prerequisites for a job are provided.
- Configuration: This might be subjective and is similar to the
logging. Personally I find unit files easier to read (and to find). The
syntax is nicely documented and anyone having to make changes will be able
to, without understanding every line of what your
- Autostart: Starting and stopping a service or timer just requires a
systemctl enable/disablemaking management less complex.
- Other: There are more points to be made here, e.g. ressource management. The ones above are the ones most important to me at this point. The great arch wiki as always has more information.
I’ll be covering two cron jobs on one of my servers as examples that I want to migrate:
*/5 * * * * /var/lib/cloudflare-ddns/update.sh >> /var/log/cloudflare_ddns.log 2>&1 0 2 * * * /var/lib/borgbackup/create-backup.sh
The backup script run by the second job currently includes measures to send out an email if something has failed. It checks exit codes for some of the commands. While migrating this, I will also set up a more centralized systemd unit to send out emails for failed units and timers.
While a crontab entry is just a single line of configuration, systemd will need
two files to accomplish the job: A timer file with the suffix
.timer and a
.service) which will be controlled by it.
Timers are systemd
unit files ending in
.timer. The are loaded in the same way but include a
[Timer] section. They have support for both Realtime timers (run on
specified time a.k.a wallclock timers) and Monolithic timers which run at a
given relative interval. I will be using a monolithic timer to check and set my dynamic
DNS settings and a realtime timer for the backup job since the later is quite
rescource-hungry and is better run somewhere at night when I’m not actively
using the server.
my-awesome-job.service for a
normally named like the timer. If you really need to activate a differently
.service you can do this with a
Unit= directive in the
section. I won’t go in to the details of service management, as it should be
Example 1: Run a shellscript every 5 Minutes
The follwing job runs a script to update my IP via the the Cloudflare API. This serves as a solution like DynDNS to be always able to reach the host on it’s URL, even though it has a non-static IP address. The IP seems to change rarely though, so the script will check beforehand and exit if the IP is unchanged. The script is included in my dotfiles as a template and gets rendered by ansible.
Let’s start by creating the
.service file. Systemd units have a lot more
options, but the following simple unit will be everything I need for this.
[Unit] Description=Check and set DDNS IPs Requires=network-online.target After=network-online.target [Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/var/lib/cloudflare-ddns/update.sh
The service contains two sections:
Description= directive is quite self-explanatory, there are few
caveats to be namend in the following two lines.
Requires= is where dependenciy-management is implemented here. The script
will try to access an API and obviously requires internet connectivity for that.
Quite confusingly there is also an alternative
Wants= directive which in most
cases will do the same thing. The difference being, that while both directives
will try to start the dependency,
Wants= will continue if that fails, while
Requires= will not. In this case we can’t do anything meaningful without
a connction, so it seems reasonable to fail if it is not present.
Looking at the
for the targets, there are two possible options:
network-online.target. Be aware, that only
ensures what we want here, this is often cause of confusion.
will only require the networking system (e.g. NetworkManager) to be set up, but
not actually to be connected.
Lastly in this section we add the
After= to not only pull in the dependency
but also make sure that our script is run in the right order relative to it.
While the most common
simple, setting it to
oneshot seems to be a
better fit. The
say the behaviour is similar to
simple but it will consider the unit up after
the main process exits. That means, it will block until the command is run.
ExecStart= directive is the command we want to run. Here I’ll just
pass my existing shell script.
The timer file will be triggering the
.service just created. Behold, here it
is in it’s full glory:
[Unit] Description=Cloudflare DDNS timer [Timer] OnBootSec=1 OnUnitActiveSec=5min Persistent=true [Install] WantedBy=basic.target
Apart from the
[Unit] section which just contains a description, there are two
others worth mentioning.
Finally, timer-related configuration! This section makes the timer a timer. As mentioned before, for this task a monolithic timer is the better aproach. Sure, it would also be possible to run the task on specific times, but we don’t really when it runs as long as it is in 5 minute intervals.
OnBootSec= tells the timer to run 1 second after booting into the system. In
reality it will probably wait longer since the service has
network-online.target as dependency. As you might have guessed
OnUnitActiveSec sepecifies the time after the unit should run again since the
unit was last activated. 5 Minutes seems reasonable for a IP check.
Persistent option is set to
true. This directive is used to control
whether missed runs should be cached up to. The service unit will be triggered
immediately if at least one run was missed.
This only includes a
WantedBy= to let the systemd know when this timer will be
basic.target is a special target unit covering basic boot-up.
Test, Run and Autostart
After placing the two files inside
/etc/systemd/system/ we need to reload the
systemd configurations effectively reading our newly created service and timer.
No errors where reported, so we can proceed to start and enable the timer at system boot.
systemctl reenable --now cloudflare.timer systemctl start cloudflare.timer
systemctl status cloudflare.timer we can see any errors in
detail in case something went wrong.
[[email protected] system]# systemctl status cloudflare.timer ● cloudflare.timer - Cloudflare DDNS timer Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/cloudflare.timer; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (waiting) since Tue 2020-03-17 09:29:02 CET; 41s ago Trigger: Tue 2020-03-17 09:34:02 CET; 4min 18s left Triggers: ● cloudflare.service Mar 17 09:29:02 birne systemd: Started Cloudflare DDNS timer. [[email protected] system]# journalctl -u cloudflare.timer -- Logs begin at Tue 2020-01-21 15:08:44 CET, end at Tue 2020-03-17 09:29:03 CET. -- Mar 17 09:29:02 birne systemd: Started Cloudflare DDNS timer.
As a last check there is the
systemctl list-timers command, which now should
show our new one too.
[[email protected] system]# systemctl list-timers NEXT LEFT LAST PASSED UNIT ACTIVATES Tue 2020-03-17 09:34:02 CET 3min 0s left Tue 2020-03-17 09:29:02 CET 1min 59s ago cloudflare.timer cloudflare.service Tue 2020-03-17 16:13:08 CET 6h left Mon 2020-03-16 16:13:08 CET 17h ago systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service Wed 2020-03-18 00:00:00 CET 14h left Tue 2020-03-17 00:00:10 CET 9h ago man-db.timer man-db.service Wed 2020-03-18 00:00:00 CET 14h left Tue 2020-03-17 00:00:10 CET 9h ago shadow.timer shadow.service Wed 2020-03-18 00:00:00 CET 14h left Tue 2020-03-17 00:00:10 CET 9h ago updatedb.timer updatedb.service 5 timers listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive timers, too.
Everything looks good so far. After waiting a few minutes, we can check the
logs, this time for the
.service file. The script seems to have been run fine,
so this one is finished for now.
[[email protected] system]# journalctl -u cloudflare.service -- Logs begin at Tue 2020-01-21 15:08:44 CET, end at Tue 2020-03-17 09:29:03 CET. -- Mar 17 09:29:02 birne systemd: Starting Check and set DDNS IPs... Mar 17 09:29:02 birne update.sh: [Cloudflare DDNS] Check Initiated Mar 17 09:29:03 birne update.sh: [Cloudflare DDNS] IPs have not changed. Mar 17 09:29:03 birne systemd: cloudflare.service: Succeeded. Mar 17 09:29:03 birne systemd: Finished Check and set DDNS IPs.
Example 2: Backup at 02:00 with E-Mail notification
Let’s start with the
.timer for the actual backup run. These
will be similar so I will only go into the differences.
# /etc/systemd/system/borg-backup.service [Unit] Description=Run Backup with Borg Requires=network-online.target After=network-online.target OnFailure=[email protected]%n.service [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/var/lib/borgbackup/create-backup.sh
# /etc/systemd/system/borg-backup.timer [Unit] Description=Run daily backup with Borg [Timer] OnCalendar=*-*-* 02:00:00 [Install] WantedBy=basic.target
.service file specifies the unit to be of type
simple this time. For the
.timer I will be using a realtime timer instead. Specific dates for the
OnCalendar= directive are specified in this format:
DayOfWeek Year-Month-Day Hour:Minute:Second
DayOfWeek is left out meaning “every day of the week”, while other parts
of the format can be set to asteriks for a wildcard. Note that it is opssible to
OnCalendar= directives if you need to get really specific
about run times.
Cron normally sends mails when a job outputs to sdout or stderr to
will be setting up a mechanism for systemd to send out an email if a unit fails.
For the actual sending part I will be using msmtp
which is already configured in
/etc/msmtprc. Any tool that can send mails from
the command line can be used. On my system, this command would send an email to
echo "Hello World, this is the message body " | msmtp [email protected]
To simplify the unit file, the following script is placend in
/usr/local/bin/systemd-email. It formats the mail correctly and takes some
input as arguments, namely the adress to send to and the subject line which will
be the failed unit’s name.
#!/bin/sh /usr/bin/sendmail -t <<ERRMAIL To: $1 From: systemd <[email protected]$HOSTNAME> Subject: [$(systemctl show -p Result --value $2)] $2 on $HOSTNAME Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 $(systemctl status --full "$2") ERRMAIL
The script will be triggered by the following unit placed in
[Unit] Description=status email for %i [Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/systemd-email [email protected] %i User=root Group=systemd-journal
First thing to notice, is that the unit’s name contains an
@ symbol. This will
allow to use it from multiple service files by adding
[email protected]%n.service to the
the unit’s name to the template. The recipient’s mail address is hard-coded,
since I want all notification mails to go here.
To test that emails are being send out correctly the arch
wiki, where the base for
the scripts above where taken from, proposes to start
[email protected]. You will need to reload the systemd daemon
before that that.
systemctl daemon-reload systemctl start [email protected]
If everything went well and no errors are reported, check your inbox. You should see a new mail similar to this:
Date: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 14:03:56 +0100 From: systemd <[email protected]> To: [email protected] Subject: dbus on birne ● dbus.service - D-Bus System Message Bus Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/dbus.service; static; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (running) since Thu 2020-03-19 02:57:26 CET; 6 days ago TriggeredBy: ● dbus.socket Docs: man:dbus-daemon(1) Main PID: 396 (dbus-daemon) Tasks: 1 (limit: 9114) Memory: 3.5M CGroup: /system.slice/dbus.service └─396 /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation --syslog-only Mar 19 02:57:26 birne systemd: Started D-Bus System Message Bus.
As a last note, if you want to always get a mail, even if the service ran
correcly you can add these lines to your
.service files together with the
OnFailure directive in the
You should now get a new mail notification everytime the unit runs, whether it succeeds or not.